...
 
Commits (257)
*.swp
webroot
__pycache__
Author: Jean Michel Rouly
Project: Anatomy of a Scholarly Article
Based on: NCSU Library's project by the same title
Project: Reading a Scholarly Article
Based on: NCSU Library's project "Anatomy of a Scholarly Article"
Copyright (C) 2014 Jean Michel Rouly, GMU HC RTOC
......
# Anatomy of a Scholarly Article
This project is heavily based on the original [NCSU Library application by
the same name](https://www.lib.ncsu.edu/tutorials/scholarly-articles/)
## Release 0.0
### ToDo
Everything!
# Reading a Scholarly Article
This project is heavily based on the original [NCSU Library application by
the same name](https://www.lib.ncsu.edu/tutorials/scholarly-articles/)
## Release 0.4
* Pushed down footer
* Changed project name
* Made annotation dictionary easier to edit (JSON)
* Simplified font (made more readable)
* Added a copyright notice at the bottom of each article
* Noted the 'return home' icon in tool instructions
* Split fields into simple tree hierarchy
* Added build scripts
* Removed PHP templating in favour of a build system
* Introduced compatible block/inline trigger system
* Created placeholder pages for fields not-yet-decided-on
### ToDo
* Finish remaining fields' papers
* Simulate pagination
* Create annotations for every field
* Make annotation triggers more visually distinctive
* Flesh out homepage text & documentation
## Setup
The following Apache virtualhost configuration directives are highly
recommended.
...
DocumentRoot /path/to/install/webroot
<Directory /path/to/install/webroot>
DirectoryIndex index.html
Options -Indexes
...
</Directory>
...
## Getting Started
There are two main ways to contribute to this project:
* adding new article translations
* maintaining current articles
### Deploy Project
To build the project into the default `webroot` directory, simply run the
build script. Point your webserver to the new directory.
$ ./build.sh
### Adding New Papers
Creating a new article translation is a labor intensive process. The first
step is duplicating the sample article in the article directory:
cp -r pages/articles/sample pages/articles/newfield
This should create five new files:
pages/articles/newfield/annotations.json
pages/articles/newfield/article.html
pages/articles/newfield/copyright.txt
pages/articles/newfield/overview.html
pages/articles/newfield/title.txt
#### Setting the Field Title (title.txt)
This is the simplest component file. Just enter the title of this field on
a single line (eg. Computer Science or Sociology).
#### Field Overview (overview.html)
Create an introduction to the field in this file. All the templating is
taken care of for you, just add paragraphs in this file:
<p> ... </p>
#### Article Copyright Notice (copyright.txt)
Put any copyright notice for the article in plain text in this file. It can
be blank if there is no applicable notice.
#### Article Annotations (annotations.json)
Enter annotations as a list of JS objects. The `id` refers to the name of
this annotation (and is used to link in with the article text), the `title`
is a human readable title (what appears in the popover title bar), and the
`string` is the annotation text.
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
Note that this file follows standard JSON syntax, so make sure to check
that it's valid after every edit by using a tool like
[JSONLint](http://jsonlint.com). If you're unfamiliar with JSON syntax,
good [tutorials](http://www.w3schools.com/json/) are available online. One
of the most common issues is forgetting commas `,` when required.
#### Article Body (article.html)
This is the most time consuming part of adding a new field. Look around
other fields for examples, but the general idea is to use standard
Bootstrap CSS to create an approximation of a scholarly article.
##### Adding a new section
Copy this sample Section block of code
<div class="row">
<div class="col-sm-12">
<h2>I. Section Title</h2>
</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
<div class="col-sm-12">
<p>
Section text.
</p>
</div>
</div>
and begin filling in text within the `<p></p>` blocks.
##### Adding a figure
To add a figure with a caption, simply use the template code:
<img src="assets/newfield/figXXX.png" class="figure"/>
<p class="caption">
Fig. XXX. Caption text.
</p>
and place it in your section. Graphical assets for a field (including
figures and equations) should be stored in the folder
`pages/articles/newfield/assets`.
##### Adding New Popover Annotations
The trigger of a popover annotation is the portion of the article text that
will become interactive. To mark a portion of the HTML article as
interactive, simply modify the containing HTML element as:
id="AnnotationName"
rel="annotation"
The `id` will be the name of this annotation. The `rel` attribute is used
to style and define behaviour of the triggering element.
For example, an annotation on a paragraph might look like
<p id="AnnotationName" rel="annotation"> ... </p>
If the annotation is to be an inline annotation, also set the element's
class attribute like
<p id="AnnotationName" rel="annotation" class="inline"> ... </p>
#!/bin/bash
set -e
# Clean up first
echo "Cleaning build directory."
clean.sh
mkdir -p tmp
mkdir -p webroot
mkdir -p webroot/json
echo "Copying static files into webroot."
cp -r static webroot/
echo "Building articles."
for article in pages/articles/*
do
echo "Operating on $article."
echo " Generating asset filenames."
ID=$(echo $article | sed 's/[^/]*\/[^/]*\///' )
TITLE_FILE="pages/articles/$ID/title.txt"
ARTICLE_FILE="pages/articles/$ID/article.html"
OVERVIEW_FILE="pages/articles/$ID/overview.html"
COPYRIGHT_FILE="pages/articles/$ID/copyright.txt"
ANNOTATIONS_FILE="pages/articles/$ID/annotations.json"
echo " Checking file presence."
if [ ! -f $TITLE_FILE ]; then echo "No file $TITLE_FILE found. Exiting."; exit; fi
if [ ! -f $OVERVIEW_FILE ]; then echo "No file $OVERVIEW_FILE found. Exiting."; exit; fi
if [ ! -f $ARTICLE_FILE ]; then echo "No file $ARTICLE_FILE found. Exiting."; exit; fi
if [ ! -f $COPYRIGHT_FILE ]; then echo "No file $COPYRIGHT_FILE found. Exiting."; exit; fi
if [ ! -f $ANNOTATIONS_FILE ]; then echo "No file $ANNOTATIONS_FILE found. Exiting."; exit; fi
echo " Reading data."
TITLE=$( cat $TITLE_FILE )
ARTICLE=$( cat $ARTICLE_FILE )
OVERVIEW=$( cat $OVERVIEW_FILE )
COPYRIGHT=$( cat $COPYRIGHT_FILE )
echo " Generating template."
cat layout/head.html > "tmp/$ID.html"
cat layout/article.html >> "tmp/$ID.html"
cat layout/foot.html >> "tmp/$ID.html"
echo " Populating template with data."
sed -i -e "s|{{ TITLE }}|$TITLE|" \
-e "s|{{ ID }}|$(echo $ID)|" \
-e "s|{{ COPYRIGHT }}|$(echo $COPYRIGHT)|" \
-e "s|{{ OVERVIEW }}|$(echo $OVERVIEW)|" \
-e "s|{{ ARTICLE }}|$(echo $ARTICLE)|" \
"tmp/$ID.html"
echo " Moving into webroot."
mv "tmp/$ID.html" webroot/
cp $ANNOTATIONS_FILE "webroot/json/$ID.json"
ASSETS="pages/articles/$ID/assets"
if [ -e $ASSETS ]
then
echo " Copying over assets."
mkdir -p "webroot/assets/$ID"
cp -r $ASSETS/* "webroot/assets/$ID"
fi
done
echo "Building site pages."
for page in pages/site/*
do
echo "Operating on $page."
echo " Generating asset filenames."
ID=$(echo $page | sed 's/[^/]*\/[^/]*\///' )
TITLE_FILE="pages/site/$ID/title.txt"
BODY_FILE="pages/site/$ID/body.html"
echo " Checking file presence."
if [ ! -f $TITLE_FILE ]; then echo "No file $TITLE_FILE found. Exiting."; exit; fi
if [ ! -f $BODY_FILE ]; then echo "No file $BODY_FILE found. Exiting."; exit; fi
echo " Reading data."
TITLE=$( cat $TITLE_FILE )
BODY=$( cat $BODY_FILE )
echo " Generating template."
cat layout/head.html > "tmp/$ID.html"
cat $BODY_FILE >> "tmp/$ID.html"
cat layout/foot.html >> "tmp/$ID.html"
echo " Populating template with data."
sed -i -e "s|{{ TITLE }}|$TITLE|" "tmp/$ID.html"
echo " Moving into webroot."
mv "tmp/$ID.html" webroot/
done
echo "Cleaning up."
rmdir tmp
#!/bin/bash
rm -f webroot/*.html
rm -rf tmp
rm -rf webroot/static
rm -rf webroot/assets
rm -rf webroot
rm -rf __pycache__
<div class="row">
<div class="col-md-10 col-md-offset-1 col-xs-12">
<ul class="nav nav-pills arov center">
<li class="active">
<a role="tab" data-toggle="tab" href="#article"
tab-index="16">Sample Article</a>
</li>
<li>
<a role="tab" data-toggle="tab" href="#overview"
tab-index="17">Field Overview</a>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
<div class="col-md-10 col-md-offset-1 col-xs-12">
<div class="tab-content">
<div class="tab-pane fade in active" id="article">
<div class="panel panel-primary article">
<div class="panel-heading text-center">
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
{{ ARTICLE }}
</div>
<div class="panel-footer text-center italic">
{{ COPYRIGHT }}
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="tab-pane fade" id="overview">
{{ OVERVIEW }}
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<script>
getAnnotations( "json/{{ ID }}.json" );
</script>
</div>
</div>
<div id="footer">
<div class="container">
<div class="row">
<div class="col-sm-10 col-sm-offset-1 text-center">
<span class="pull-right"><a href="#top">Return to top</a></span>
Built by <a href="http://michel.rouly.net">Michel Rouly</a> for
<a href="//gmu.edu">George Mason University</a> with
<a href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.txt">some rights
reserved</a>.
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<!-- Javascript
================================================== -->
<script src="static/js/latexit.js"></script>
<script src="static/js/activation.js"></script>
</body>
</html>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<!-- Basic Page Needs
================================================== -->
<meta charset="utf-8">
<meta name="description" content="Scholarly research documentation.">
<meta name="keywords" content="scholarly article, reading, anatomy">
<meta name="author" content="Jean Michel Rouly">
<title>Reading a Scholarly Article</title>
<!-- CSS
================================================== -->
<link rel="stylesheet" href="static/css/normalize.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="static/css/bootstrap.min.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="static/css/bootstrap-accessibility.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="static/css/font-awesome.min.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="static/css/fonts.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="static/css/article.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="static/css/annotations.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="static/css/body.css">
<!-- Javascript
================================================== -->
<script src="static/js/jquery.min.js"></script>
<script src="static/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>
<script src="static/js/bootstrap-accessibility.min.js"></script>
<script src="static/js/annotations.js"></script>
<!-- Favicons
================================================== -->
<link rel="shortcut icon" href="static/imgs/favicon.ico">
</head>
<body>
<span id="top"></span>
<!-- Navigation bar
================================================== -->
<nav class="navbar navbar-default navbar-fixed-top" role="navigation">
<div class="navbar-header">
<button type="button" class="navbar-toggle" data-toggle="collapse" data-target=".navbar-responsive-collapse">
<span class="icon-bar"></span>
<span class="icon-bar"></span>
<span class="icon-bar"></span>
</button>
<a class="navbar-brand" tabindex="1" href="index.html">
<i class="fa fa-home fa-fw" title="Return Home"></i></a>
</div>
<div class="navbar-collapse collapse navbar-responsive-collapse">
<ul class="nav navbar-nav">
<li class="dropdown" id="fields">
<a href="#" class="dropdown-toggle" tabindex="2"
data-toggle="dropdown">Scholarly Articles <b class="caret"></b></a>
<ul class="dropdown-menu" role="menu">
<li class="dropdown-header">STEM-H</li>
<li><a href="cs.html" tabindex="3">
Computer Science</a></li>
<li><a href="eng.html" tabindex="4">
Engineering</a></li>
<li><a href="sci.html" tabindex="5">
Hard Sciences</a></li>
<li><a href="med.html" tabindex="6">
Health Science</a></li>
<li><a href="lsci.html" tabindex="7">
Life Sciences</a></li>
<li class="divider"></li>
<li class="dropdown-header">Social Science</li>
<li><a href="anth.html" tabindex="8">
Anthropology</a></li>
<li><a href="crim.html" tabindex="9">
Criminology and Legal Studies</a></li>
<li><a href="edu.html" tabindex="10">
Education</a></li>
<li><a href="gov.html" tabindex="11">
Policy and Government</a></li>
<li><a href="psy.html" tabindex="12">
Psychology</a></li>
<li><a href="soci.html" tabindex="13">
Sociology</a></li>
<li class="divider"></li>
<li class="dropdown-header">Humanities</li>
<li><a href="hist.html" tabindex="14">
History</a></li>
<li><a href="lit.html" tabindex="15">
Literature</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</nav>
<!-- Primary page contents wrapper
================================================== -->
<div id="wrap">
<div class="container">
<!-- Header Row
================================================ -->
<div class="row">
<div class="col-md-10 col-md-offset-1">
<div class="page-header">
<h1>
{{ TITLE }}
</h1>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<!-- Page contents
============================================== -->
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
This diff is collapsed.
<p>
Introduction to Anthropology will be available in Spring 2015.
</p>
<p><em>
Annotations and introduction by Liaison Librarian Andrew Lee.
</em></p>
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
<p>
A Reading Scholarly Articles tutorial for Criminology and Legal Studies
articles will be available in Spring 2015.
</p>
<p>
Introduction to Criminology and Legal Studies will be available in Spring
2015.
</p>
<p><em>
Annotations and introduction Liaison Librarian Janna Mattson.
</em></p>
Criminology and Legal Studies
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#article",
"title": "Article Structure",
"string": "This scholarly work follows a very typical structure found in computer science and IT papers. The sections of this paper are: the abstract (summary), introduction, background and related work (literature review), systems architecture (methodology/experimental design), results, conclusion and bibliography. The length and titles of these sections may vary depending on the resesarch project, but they are the standard sections found in computer science and IT research papers."
},
{
"id": "#title",
"title": "Title",
"string": "The title of a scholarly research paper usually provides clues about the research described in the paper. A good title is important because it will describe the content briefly as well as make the paper memorable."
},
{
"id": "#authors",
"title": "Author Institute Information",
"string": "Listing the institutional affiliation and contact information of the author(s) is a common feature in scholarly works. Generally, this information is found with the author name or in a note at either the bottom of the first page of the article or the end of the article. If there are multiple authors, one may be designated to handle questions and contact and is frequently called the \"corresponding author.\""
},
{
"id": "#abstract",
"title": "Abstract",
"string": "Abstracts written by the authors are found in virtually all scholarly research papers and conference papers in computer science and IT. The abstract is a very brief summary of the article and provides information on what the researchers investigated, the methods and research techniques they used, and the results of the research. Computer science researchers will find it very helpful to read the abstract because it will help them determine the relevancy of the article to their projects without having to read the whole article."
},
{
"id": "#research-questions",
"title": "Research Questions",
"string": "The research questions descrie what the researchers are trying to learn through their research project. Frequently, the research questions are explicitly stated in the Introduction. Other times, they are woven into the introduction and must be discerned by the reader, as in this paper. From reading this introduction, the research questions seem to be: 1) What is the effect of geographic difference on application performance? and 2) What are the effects of network performance on application usability?"
},
{
"id": "#keywords",
"title": "Keywords",
"string": "In many computer science and IT journals, author supplied keywords are an important indicator of the topic of the paper. In this paper, no keywords have been supplied by the authors. Often, reviewing the abstract and the keywords together can provide enough information to judge if a paper is relevant to your research. Published papers may also have \"Index\" or \"Subject\" terms included by the publisher which further help the reader decide if the paper is relevant."
},
{
"id": "#lit-review",
"title": "Literature Review",
"string": "In this paper, the literature review is called \"Background and Related Work\". This is an important section of any scholarly journal paper because it provides the reader with information about the previous research upon which the current research is based. Information in this section will usually provide the salient points from previously published, selected papers that are relevant to the current project. Thus, it is very important that readers pay close attention to this section because it will provide the theoretical underpinnings for the current research project. Information on the types of data to be collected is provided here. This section may also discuss methods used in past research and their applicability to the current project, which these authors have done. Note that the citation style in this paper is very different than what is seen in the humanities or social sciences. Computer Science and IT papers frequently use in-text citations that use only the number of the reference in the bibliography listing."
},
{
"id": "#system-architecture",
"title": "System Architecture",
"string": "The System Architecture section is essentially the Methodology section and outlines, at a high level, the experimental design: the architecture of the system used, the types of data collected, and how it was collected. Depending on the research topic, the methodology section may contain flow and/or graphical diagrams of a process, circuit diagrams, mathematical formulas, etc. The process diagrams will show the relationship among the different parts of the experiment and can help readers better understand the research. The System Architecture section does not go into as much detail about the methodology as other research papers do, however, probably because its purpose is only to explain the overall system. In this paper, much of the step-by-step information about the test methods is found in the Results section."
},
{
"id": "#results",
"title": "Results",
"string": "The Results section usually only discusses the results from the experimental tests. This paper is different in that it includes an in-depth discussion of the data-collection methods used. The Results section may contain tables, graphs, or diagrams showing the results of the experiments or tests run."
},
{
"id": "#future-work",
"title": "Future Work",
"string": "No experiment is perfect and new questions arise during the research process that can't be answered using the data collected. Researchers will generally take this kind of information and suggest future research that could be pursued. If the authors decide to expand their project to do this research, they will indicate that these are their plans for future research. Other researchers may not want or be able to do the future work they are proposing, so others may use this section to get ideas for research projects. This information is frequently found in research papers in computer science and IT, but where it appears may vary. If a separate section is not created, other logical places for it are the results and conclusion sections."
},
{
"id": "#conclusion",
"title": "Conclusion",
"string": "The Conclusion section sums up the results of the experiment and provides the reader with the implications of the results. The research questions may be reiterated in this section and the author may address how successful the research was at answering these questions. In this paper, this information is in the results section."
},
{
"id": "#references",
"title": "References",
"string": "The References are an interesting seciton because they provide a glimpse of the types of research literature published and used by computer science and IT researchers. A quick look at the references to this paper show that 80% are NOT journal articles. Instead, they are papers written for presentation at a conference or workshop. Not surprisingly, most of them are from IEEE or ACM association conferences. This is very typical of computer science and IT research papers. These fields evolve very quickly, so the conference proceedings and transactions are an important source of the most recent research findings to researchers. Conference papers may be peer reviewed (even double-blind), but the review may not be quite as rigorous as the peer review process used for journal papers because there is a shorter time period in which to do the review. The citation style used herein is common in computer science and IT. Instead of alphabetical listing by author, references are listed in the order in which they are cited in the paper and assigned numbers. When citing, the number is used in the text instead of the author's name. One thing to note is that papers are not listed if they are not cited. Page numbers are not used for in-text citations; only the number from the reference list is used. A common style used for citations in these disciplines is the IEEE style. This style was developed for use in IEEE journals and many others have adopted it. It has some similarities to APA style, but many differences. One thing to notice in the above is that the journal name (see #7) is abbreviated. This was always done when journals were printed because it saves space, but it is disappearing in electronic journals because space is not an issue."
}
]}
This diff is collapsed.
Unpublished article reproduced with the permission of the authors.
Copyright belongs to the authors.
<p>
Computer science and IT are relatively young disciplines that evolve
rapidly. Because of this, publication of research in a timely manner is
especially critical. The journal literature is one way to share research
information in computer engineering, but conference papers are more
important. The structure of a conference paper is frequently very similar
to a journal article, but these papers report on recently completed or in
progress research, so they represent the cutting edge of the field.
</p>
<p>
Another important source of research information is the technical report.
For years, computer scientists have shared their research results with one
another via technical reports. Technical reports may report on research, or
they may report on the results of investigations or design projects. Many
computer science research groups have put their technical reports online to
allow open access to their results. US Government sponsored technical
reports may be available online or at a research library. The Mason
Department of Computer Science has their own technical report archive at
<a href="http://cs.gmu.edu/~tr-admin/">http://cs.gmu.edu/~tr-admin/</a>.
The reports in this archive cover over twenty years of research.
</p>
<p>
Scholarly journal and conference articles in computer science are important
to researchers. The publication of research journals and conference
proceedings in computer science has been controlled by professional
societies and several independent publishers. Societies publishing
journals related computer science and IT include IEEE and ACM. The
publisher Springer has long published computer science related research,
most notably the series Lecture Notes in Computer Science. This series
covers many different aspects of computer science and provides access to
the papers from many international conferences.
</p>
<p>
The peer review process for journals is usually a double blind process in
which neither the author nor the reviewer know the other’s identity. Peer
review by an expert in the field helps establish the reliability of the
information contained within a research paper. Scholarly computer science
journals may be peer reviewed.
</p>
<p>
Conference papers may also be peer reviewed but may not receive as rigorous
a review as a journal paper receives. The review of technical reports is
generally not a blind peer review process. Instead, subject matter experts
in the same or another organization may review the technical report and
comment on it before its release to the public.
</p>
<p><em>
Annotations and Introduction by Liaison Librarian Theresa Calcagno.
</em></p>
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
<p>
A Reading Scholarly Articles tutorial for Education articles will be
available in Spring 2015.
</p>
<p>
Research by educators is communicated via peer-reviewed journal articles,
trade publications, and books. The purpose of education research is to
examine how learning takes place, the effectiveness of education policies
at national, state and sometimes local levels, to investigate change and
new developments in the field of education, analysis of educational
interventions, and teaching methodologies as well as teacher training
practices. Research in education literally spans the entire life span.
Education researchers often specialize in a certain aspect of education
and/or specific groups including traditional and nontraditional students.
</p>
<p>
The actual research is conducted in a variety of ways including systematic
literature reviews which examine commonalities and differences in current
education literature. It may entail gathering data via observations,
interviews, and the gathering of empirical data. These types of research
have one thing in common; they attempt to solve a problem. The research
itself may be conducted by professors, graduate or doctoral students at
academic institutions such as Mason. This type of research involves the
design of research studies which test educational theories and
methodologies. Often the research is conducted in an attempt to find
solutions to problems in specific education settings. Research of this type
is often conducted by organizations or institutions outside of that
educational setting. Generally the agency contracting the research has a
vested interest in the results of the research and expects recommendations
which may help to solve their problem.
</p>
<p>
The methods used to conduct the educational research include qualitative,
quantitative, and mixed methods. Quantitative research includes case
studies, narratives, historical research, journals, diaries, etc.
Qualitative research includes gathering of numerical data including that
found in single and multi-subject research, meta-analysis, and
correlational research. Mixed methods research combines different research
methods including action research and program evaluation. The ultimate goal
is to solve problems experienced by teachers in the classroom.
</p>
<p>
For those researchers who wish to publish their results they must find a
journal related to their topic. Some journals are sponsored by
professional organizations such as the American Educational Research
Association (AERA), the National Academy of Education (NAEd), and the
National Council of Teachers of English. Journal submission guidelines
include specific instructions for length of articles, the review process
including how the article reviews are conducted, the style used to write
the articles. For education the 6<sup>th</sup> is most often used. The
peer-review process may take several months and it could take a year for
the article to be published. Researchers should also consider journal
acceptance rates which is the number of articles actually published from
those submitted in a given time period. Some believe that the lower the
acceptance rate the more prestigious the journal.
</p>
<p><em>
Annotations and Introduction by Liaison Librarian Anne Driscoll.
</em></p>
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
This diff is collapsed.
Reproduced from the NIH Public Access author manuscript with the permission
of Nathalia Peixoto: Sunderam, Sridhar, Nich Chernyy, Nathalia Peixoto,
Johnathan Mason, Steven Weinstein, Steven Schiff, and Bruce Gluckman.
"Improved sleep-wake and behavior discrimination using MEMS
accelerometers." <em>Journal of Neuroscientific Methods</em> 163:2 (2007):
373-383.
<p>
Engineering is a broad discipline, but all engineers have one thing in
common: they are problem solvers. Some of the earliest examples of
engineering projects are from ancient times when the Romans built the
aqueducts and the Egyptians built the Pyramids. In the present, engineering
has evolved, diversified and become more interdisciplinary, but the goal is
still the same—to make life better for all people. This is done through
the design and building of new bridges (civil engineer), the development of
a more reliable power grid (electrical engineer), the invention of the MRI
test for doctors (biomedical engineer), etc.
</p>
<p>
It is very important that engineers understand the laws of physics,
chemistry and mathematics as they will apply these in their work. Thus, in
order to become an engineer, students must study the theoretical sciences
in addition to mathematics and their engineering classes. As professionals,
engineers will rely on the research from these other fields as it may
affect their designs or inventions.
</p>
<p>
The journal literature is one of the primary ways to share research
information in engineering, although there are others. Scholarly journal
articles in engineering are very important, especially for researchers in
engineering. Each engineering sub-discipline has developed its own set of
scholarly research journals, as well as a number of trade journals. The
publication of research journals in engineering has been controlled mainly
by professional societies, but independent publishers also publish
reputable engineering research journals. Societies publishing journals
(some of them over 100 journals) include the ASCE (civil engineering), IEEE
(electrical and computer engineering, computer science and IT), ASME
(mechanical engineering), and ACM (computer science and engineering, and
IT).
</p>
<p>
The peer review process helps establish the reliability of the information
contained within the article and scholarly engineering journals may be peer
reviewed. During this process, submitted papers are reviewed using a double
blind peer review process. The papers are sent to reviewers who are experts
on the subject, but the reviewers are not told the name or institutional
affiliation of the authors. When the authors receive the reviewers’
comments, they are not told the name of the reviewers.
</p>
<p>
In addition to journals in engineering, the interdisciplinary nature of
engineering requires that researchers be aware of research in other fields
and engineering sub-disciplines including medicine (biomedical and
bioengineering), geology (civil engineering), chemistry (environmental
engineering), etc. Mechanical engineering research is used in virtually all
sub-disciplines of engineering, so it is very important to engineers too.
</p>
<p>
Several other sources of research information are papers presented at
conferences and technical reports.
<ul>
<li>Conference papers report on recently completed or in progress
research, so they represent the cutting edge of the field and are
important in all areas of engineering. Conference papers may be included
with the society published journals in a library database.</li>
<li> Technical reports may report on research (especially government
sponsored research), or they may report on the results of investigations
or design projects. This format is particularly important in
transportation engineering. Many research institutions have put their
technical reports online to allow open access to their results. US
Government sponsored technical reports may be available online or at a
research library.</li>
</ul>
</p>
<p>
Conference papers may be reviewed using a peer review process, but it may
not be as rigorous a review as a journal paper receives. The review of
technical reports is generally not a blind peer review process. Instead,
subject matter experts in the same or another organization may review the
technical report before its release to the public.
</p>
<p><em>
Annotations and Introduction by Liaison Librarian Theresa Calcagno.
</em></p>
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
This diff is collapsed.
<p>
Introduction to Policy and Government will be available in Spring 2015.
</em>
<p><em>
Annotations and introduction Liaison Librarian Helen Mcmanus.
</em></p>
Policy and Government
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
Verney, Michael A. "An Eye for Prices, an Eye for Souls: Americans in the
Indian Subcontinent, 1784-1838." <em>Journal of the Early Republic</em> 33:
3 (2013): 397–431. doi:10.1353/jer.2013.0057. Article reproduced with the
permission of University of Pennsylvania Press.
<p>
Subcontinent, 1784-1838." Journal of the Early Republic 33, no. 3 (2013):
397-431. Scholarship by historians is primary communicated via monographs
however there are several significant journals published to promote
scholarly communication through the dissemination of information relevant
to scope of the publication. Typically, these publications are associated
with a particular professional association. For historians, two of the most
important professional associations are the American Historical Association
and the Organization of American Historians, but there are also specialized
associations who focus on specific geographical or topical areas. For
instance, the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic
publishes the journal in which the example article is published. The
governing administration of the association establishes guidelines and
publishing standards carried out by an editorial body that oversees the
production of the publication.
</p>
<p>
Historians generally construct a research question that explores change
over time of an issue, event, or location. They construct their research
questions very carefully and are generally answer these questions using a
pool of primary sources. Primary sources provide historians with their
principal form of evidence by offering substantiation for the claims made
by the scholar. In historical practice, primary source are understood to be
direct evidence from a particular time period. Historians also rely
heavily on the work of previous scholars. These secondary sources fill in
gaps and provides more context for reader. Further, the synthesis of
primary and secondary sources allows the author to demonstrate the
significance of their work to the field.
</p>
<p>
When historians have an article they want to submit they can look for a
journal that falls within the scope of their work and examine the
submission requirements. This information often includes a length
requirement as well as format standards. Typically, journals specify their
citation standards in these requirements; in History, the most common
citation standard is the Chicago Manual of Style footnote style. Some
journals have an extensive peer review process but others rely primarily on
their editorial staff to review submissions. For those journals with a peer
review process, submitted articles are generally sent anonymously to two to
three expert readers, who typically approve for publishing, ask the author
to revise and re- submit for consideration, or reject the submission.In
addition, journals provide information that describes their governance,
scope and general information regarding the extent of their circulation.
Journals also provide information for those that want to subscribe and what
databases provide access to their content.
</p>
<p><em>
Annotations and introduction by Liaison Librarian George Oberle.
</em></p>
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
This diff is collapsed.
<p>
Literary studies is the study of literature in English and other languages.
In the past, the “literature” that was studied was generally limited to
fiction, poetry, and essays, but that definition has broadened to include
“texts” such as graphic novels, films, advertising, and popular culture.
Formerly, only recognized “canonical” authors such as Shakespeare or T.S.
Eliot might be studied, but over the past few decades, literary studies has
become much more inclusive and diverse. Many literary critics would argue
that the very idea of a “canon” (a list of the “best” works) is deeply
problematic.
</p>
<p>
A key technique of literary studies is so-called “close reading.” Close
reading means closely studying the actual text (or images, as the case may
be), interpreting that text, and making broader arguments based on those
interpretations. Depending on when the text that you are studying was
created, close reading may involve learning what given words meant in a
given historical period since word meanings change over time. It may also
involve learning more about the historical period that a given work was
created in so that you can better understand the larger context. In fact,
many literary critics also draw on historical primary sources (texts such
as newspapers or diaries produced in a given time period) to better
interpret a given literary text.
</p>
<p>
Literary critics often use theories, concepts, and ideas drawn from other
disciplines to help them interpret literary texts. Some theoretical
paradigms that have been influential among scholars of literature have been
drawn from Linguistics, Anthropology, Sociology, Political Economy,
History, and Continental Philosophy. Literary criticism has also been
influenced by interdisciplinary engagements with the Gender and Sexuality
Studies, Race and Ethnicity Studies, Cultural Studies, and others. These
different perspectives allow literary critics to better understand literary
works and their production.
</p>
<p><em>
Annotations and introduction by Liaison Librarian Jen Stevens.
</em></p>
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
This diff is collapsed.
<p>
Introduction to Life Sciences will be available in Fall 2014.
</p>
<p><em>
Annotations and introduction Liaison Librarian Victoria Martin.
</em></p>
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
This diff is collapsed.
Reproduced under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 license:
Kong, Alice, Kai Chow Choi, Ruth Chan, kris Lok, Risa Ozaki, Albert Li,
Chung Shun Ho, Michael Chan, Mandy Sea, C. Jeyakumar Henry, Julian Chan,
and Jean Woo. "A randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of a
low glycemic index (GI) diet on body mass index in obese adolescents."
<em>BioMed Central Public Health</em> 14:180 (2014)
<p>
Introduction to the Health Sciences will be available in Spring 2015.
</p>
<p><em>
Annotations and introduction by Liaison Librarian Sarah Sheehan.
</em></p>
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
This diff is collapsed.
<p>
Psychology is the science of the mind and behavior. It is both an academic
and applied discipline. Academic psychologists design research studies that
utilize empirical methods to test hypotheses about human or animal
behavior. The evidence may be quantitative and call for statistical
analysis or qualitative and call for a more interpretive approach. The
science of psychology is applied by practicing psychologists in a variety
of settings, including schools, hospitals, rehabilitation centers,
businesses, private mental health providers, and government agencies. The
scholarly literature in this field covers a range of areas, including
diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders and addictions, ergonomics,
motivation, decision making, forensics and wellness.
</p>
<p>
Psychology is generally recognized to be a social science, so articles in
this field are often similar to articles in other social scientific
research, but may also have features of hard science articles. Indeed, the
study of psychology is multidisciplinary, because behavior is a component
of humanities, arts, science and social sciences. Research in business,
communication, literature, history, engineering and many other disciplines
may draw on the scientific theories, empirical findings, or research
methods developed for the study of psychology. Further, there are
established subject specialties within psychology. At Mason, we have
programs in clinical psychology, applied developmental psychology, human
factors/applied cognition psychology, educational psychology and
industrial/ organizational psychology. Neuroscience and psychology are
increasingly intertwined as technologies allow us to see the connections
between the brain and behavior.
</p>
<p>
Psychology generates and tests theories and models to explain, predict, and
treat complex human behaviors. For instance, some psychologists use the
“Elaboration Likelihood Model” to explain the formation of new attitudes.
Likewise, some psychologists use the “Self Evaluation Maintenance Model” of
social comparison to understand self esteem and self evaluation. New
theories are created or evolve from historical theories and form the basis
for hypotheses which are tested through psychological research.
Standardized tests, measurements and structured experiments are central to
the process of evaluating hypothesis and developing theories. The results
of psychological studies are reported in the scholarly psychological
literature and at association conferences.
</p>
<p><em>
Annotations and introduction by Liaison Librarian Kathy Butler.
</em></p>
{"annotations": [
{
"id": "#sample",
"title": "Sample",
"string": "This is a sample."
}
]}
This diff is collapsed.
Copyright notice goes here.
<p>
Describe the field here.
</p>
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.
This diff is collapsed.