Commit 896808df authored by Kumar Appaiah's avatar Kumar Appaiah Committed by Joshua Roesslein
Browse files

Add initial Sphinx documentation.

Signed-off-by: default avatarJoshua Roesslein <>
parent de0d8abd
# Makefile for Sphinx documentation
# You can set these variables from the command line.
SPHINXBUILD = sphinx-build
BUILDDIR = _build
# Internal variables.
PAPEROPT_a4 = -D latex_paper_size=a4
PAPEROPT_letter = -D latex_paper_size=letter
.PHONY: help clean html dirhtml pickle json htmlhelp qthelp latex changes linkcheck doctest
@echo "Please use \`make <target>' where <target> is one of"
@echo " html to make standalone HTML files"
@echo " dirhtml to make HTML files named index.html in directories"
@echo " pickle to make pickle files"
@echo " json to make JSON files"
@echo " htmlhelp to make HTML files and a HTML help project"
@echo " qthelp to make HTML files and a qthelp project"
@echo " latex to make LaTeX files, you can set PAPER=a4 or PAPER=letter"
@echo " changes to make an overview of all changed/added/deprecated items"
@echo " linkcheck to check all external links for integrity"
@echo " doctest to run all doctests embedded in the documentation (if enabled)"
-rm -rf $(BUILDDIR)/*
mkdir -p $(BUILDDIR)/html
@echo "Build finished. The HTML pages are in $(BUILDDIR)/html."
mkdir -p $(BUILDDIR)/dirhtml
@echo "Build finished. The HTML pages are in $(BUILDDIR)/dirhtml."
mkdir -p $(BUILDDIR)/pickle
@echo "Build finished; now you can process the pickle files."
mkdir -p $(BUILDDIR)/json
@echo "Build finished; now you can process the JSON files."
mkdir -p $(BUILDDIR)/htmlhelp
$(SPHINXBUILD) -b htmlhelp $(ALLSPHINXOPTS) $(BUILDDIR)/htmlhelp
@echo "Build finished; now you can run HTML Help Workshop with the" \
".hhp project file in $(BUILDDIR)/htmlhelp."
mkdir -p $(BUILDDIR)/qthelp
@echo "Build finished; now you can run "qcollectiongenerator" with the" \
".qhcp project file in $(BUILDDIR)/qthelp, like this:"
@echo "# qcollectiongenerator $(BUILDDIR)/qthelp/tweepy.qhcp"
@echo "To view the help file:"
@echo "# assistant -collectionFile $(BUILDDIR)/qthelp/tweepy.qhc"
mkdir -p $(BUILDDIR)/latex
@echo "Build finished; the LaTeX files are in $(BUILDDIR)/latex."
@echo "Run \`make all-pdf' or \`make all-ps' in that directory to" \
"run these through (pdf)latex."
mkdir -p $(BUILDDIR)/changes
@echo "The overview file is in $(BUILDDIR)/changes."
mkdir -p $(BUILDDIR)/linkcheck
$(SPHINXBUILD) -b linkcheck $(ALLSPHINXOPTS) $(BUILDDIR)/linkcheck
@echo "Link check complete; look for any errors in the above output " \
"or in $(BUILDDIR)/linkcheck/output.txt."
mkdir -p $(BUILDDIR)/doctest
@echo "Testing of doctests in the sources finished, look at the " \
"results in $(BUILDDIR)/doctest/output.txt."
.. _api_reference:
API Reference
This page contains some basic documentation for the Tweepy module.
:mod:`tweepy` Module
.. _auth_tutorial:
Authentication Tutorial
Tweepy supports both basic and oauth authentication. Authentication is
handled by tweepy.AuthHandler classes with two implementations
* OAuthHandler
* BasicAuthHandler
Basic Authentication
Basic authentication uses the user's Twitter username and password for
authenticating with the API. You must query the user for these two
pieces of infomation before we can authenticate.
Now first we must create an instance of the BasicAuthHandler and pass
into it the username and password::
auth = tweepy.BasicAuthHandler(username, password)
Next we need to create our API instance which will be used for
executing requests to the Twitter API::
api = tweepy.API(auth)
We are now ready to make API calls that are authenticated! Here is a
quick example posting a new tweet to the authenticated user's account::
api.update_status('hello from tweepy!')
OAuth Authentication
OAuth is a bit trickier than basic auth, but there are some advantages
to using it:
* You can set a 'from myappname' which will appear in tweets
* More secure since you don't need the user's password
* Your app does not break if the user changes their password in
the future
Tweepy tries to make OAuth as painless as possible for you. To begin
the process we need to register our client application with
Twitter. You can do that here. Create a new application and once you
are done you should have your consumer token and secret. Keep these
two handy, you'll need them.
The next step is creating an OAuthHandler instance. Into this we pass
our consumer token and secret which was given to us in the previous
auth = tweepy.OAuthHandler(consumer_token, consumer_secret)
If you have a web application and are using a callback URL that needs
to be supplied dynamically you would pass it in like so::
auth = tweepy.OAuthHandler(consumer_token, consumer_secret,
If the callback URL will not be changing, it is best to just configure
it statically on when setting up your application's
Unlike basic auth, we must do the OAuth "dance" before we can start
using the API. We must complete the following steps:
#. Get a request token from twitter
#. Redirect user to to authorize our application
#. If using a callback, twitter will redirect the user to
us. Otherwise the user must manually supply us with the verifier
#. Exchange the authorized request token for an access token.
So let's fetch our request token to begin the dance::
redirect_url = auth.get_authorization_url()
except tweepy.TweepError:
print 'Error! Failed to get request token.'
This call requests the token from twitter and returns to us the
authorization URL where the user must be redirect to authorize us. Now
if this is a desktop application we can just hang onto our
OAuthHandler instance until the user returns back. In a web
application we will be using a callback request. So we must store the
request token in the session since we will need it inside the callback
URL request. Here is a pseudo example of storing the request token in
a session::
session.set('request_token', (auth.request_token.key,
So now we can redirect the user to the URL returned to us earlier from
the get_authorization_url() method.
If this is a desktop application (or any application not using
callbacks) we must query the user for the "verifier code" that twitter
will supply them after they authorize us. Inside a web application
this verifier value will be supplied in the callback request from
twitter as a GET query parameter in the URL.
.. code-block :: python
# Example using callback (web app)
verifier = request.GET.get('oauth_verifier')
# Example w/o callback (desktop)
verifier = raw_input('Verifier:')
The final step is exchanging the request token for an access
token. The access token is the "key" for opening the Twitter API
treasure box. To fetch this token we do the following::
# Let's say this is a web app, so we need to re-build the auth handler
# first...
auth = tweepy.OAuthHandler(consumer_key, consumer_secret)
token = session.get('request_token')
auth.set_request_token(token[0], token[1])
except tweepy.TweepError:
print 'Error! Failed to get access token.'
It is a good idea to save the access token for later use. You do not
need to re-fetch it each time. Twitter currently does not expire the
tokens, so the only time it would ever go invalid is if the user
revokes our application access. To store the access token depends on
your application. Basically you need to store 2 string values: key and
You can throw these into a database, file, or where ever you store
your data. To re-build an OAuthHandler from this stored access token
you would do this::
auth = tweepy.OAuthHandler(consumer_key, consumer_secret)
auth.set_access_token(key, secret)
So now that we have our OAuthHandler equiped with an access token, we
are ready for business::
api = tweepy.API(auth)
api.update_status('tweepy + oauth!')
.. _code_snippet:
Code Snippets
Here are some code snippets to help you out with using Tweepy. Feel
free to contribute your own snippets or improve the ones here!
.. code-block :: python
auth = tweepy.BasicAuthHandler("username", "password")
api = tweepy.API(auth)
.. code-block :: python
auth = tweepy.OAuthHandler("consumer_key", "consumer_secret")
# Redirect user to Twitter to authorize
# Get access token
# Construct the API instance
api = tweepy.API(auth)
.. code-block :: python
# Iterate through all of the authenticated user's friends
for friend in tweepy.Cursor(api.friends).items():
# Process the friend here
# Iterate through the first 200 statuses in the friends timeline
for status in tweepy.Cursor(api.friends_timeline).items(200):
# Process the status here
This snippet will follow every follower of the authenticated user.
.. code-block :: python
for follower in tweepy.Cursor(api.followers).items():
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# tweepy documentation build configuration file, created by
# sphinx-quickstart on Sun Dec 6 11:13:52 2009.
# This file is execfile()d with the current directory set to its containing dir.
# Note that not all possible configuration values are present in this
# autogenerated file.
# All configuration values have a default; values that are commented out
# serve to show the default.
import sys, os
# If extensions (or modules to document with autodoc) are in another directory,
# add these directories to sys.path here. If the directory is relative to the
# documentation root, use os.path.abspath to make it absolute, like shown here.
# -- General configuration -----------------------------------------------------
# Add any Sphinx extension module names here, as strings. They can be extensions
# coming with Sphinx (named 'sphinx.ext.*') or your custom ones.
extensions = ['sphinx.ext.autodoc']
# Add any paths that contain templates here, relative to this directory.
#templates_path = ['_templates']
# The suffix of source filenames.
source_suffix = '.rst'
# The encoding of source files.
#source_encoding = 'utf-8'
# The master toctree document.
master_doc = 'index'
# General information about the project.
project = u'tweepy'
copyright = u'2009, Tweepy Authors'
# The version info for the project you're documenting, acts as replacement for
# |version| and |release|, also used in various other places throughout the
# built documents.
# The short X.Y version.
version = '1.4'
# The full version, including alpha/beta/rc tags.
release = '1.4'
# The language for content autogenerated by Sphinx. Refer to documentation
# for a list of supported languages.
#language = None
# There are two options for replacing |today|: either, you set today to some
# non-false value, then it is used:
#today = ''
# Else, today_fmt is used as the format for a strftime call.
#today_fmt = '%B %d, %Y'
# List of documents that shouldn't be included in the build.
#unused_docs = []
# List of directories, relative to source directory, that shouldn't be searched
# for source files.
exclude_trees = ['_build']
# The reST default role (used for this markup: `text`) to use for all documents.
#default_role = None
# If true, '()' will be appended to :func: etc. cross-reference text.
#add_function_parentheses = True
# If true, the current module name will be prepended to all description
# unit titles (such as .. function::).
#add_module_names = True
# If true, sectionauthor and moduleauthor directives will be shown in the
# output. They are ignored by default.
#show_authors = False
# The name of the Pygments (syntax highlighting) style to use.
pygments_style = 'sphinx'
# A list of ignored prefixes for module index sorting.
#modindex_common_prefix = []
# -- Options for HTML output ---------------------------------------------------
# The theme to use for HTML and HTML Help pages. Major themes that come with
# Sphinx are currently 'default' and 'sphinxdoc'.
html_theme = 'default'
# Theme options are theme-specific and customize the look and feel of a theme
# further. For a list of options available for each theme, see the
# documentation.
#html_theme_options = {}
# Add any paths that contain custom themes here, relative to this directory.
#html_theme_path = []
# The name for this set of Sphinx documents. If None, it defaults to
# "<project> v<release> documentation".
#html_title = None
# A shorter title for the navigation bar. Default is the same as html_title.
#html_short_title = None
# The name of an image file (relative to this directory) to place at the top
# of the sidebar.
#html_logo = None
# The name of an image file (within the static path) to use as favicon of the
# docs. This file should be a Windows icon file (.ico) being 16x16 or 32x32
# pixels large.
#html_favicon = None
# Add any paths that contain custom static files (such as style sheets) here,
# relative to this directory. They are copied after the builtin static files,
# so a file named "default.css" will overwrite the builtin "default.css".
#html_static_path = ['_static']
# If not '', a 'Last updated on:' timestamp is inserted at every page bottom,
# using the given strftime format.
#html_last_updated_fmt = '%b %d, %Y'
# If true, SmartyPants will be used to convert quotes and dashes to
# typographically correct entities.
#html_use_smartypants = True
# Custom sidebar templates, maps document names to template names.
#html_sidebars = {}
# Additional templates that should be rendered to pages, maps page names to
# template names.
#html_additional_pages = {}
# If false, no module index is generated.
html_use_modindex = True
# If false, no index is generated.
#html_use_index = True
# If true, the index is split into individual pages for each letter.
#html_split_index = False
# If true, links to the reST sources are added to the pages.
#html_show_sourcelink = True
# If true, an OpenSearch description file will be output, and all pages will
# contain a <link> tag referring to it. The value of this option must be the
# base URL from which the finished HTML is served.
#html_use_opensearch = ''
# If nonempty, this is the file name suffix for HTML files (e.g. ".xhtml").
#html_file_suffix = ''
# Output file base name for HTML help builder.
htmlhelp_basename = 'tweepydoc'
# -- Options for LaTeX output --------------------------------------------------
# The paper size ('letter' or 'a4').
#latex_paper_size = 'letter'
# The font size ('10pt', '11pt' or '12pt').
#latex_font_size = '10pt'
# Grouping the document tree into LaTeX files. List of tuples
# (source start file, target name, title, author, documentclass [howto/manual]).
latex_documents = [
('index', 'tweepy.tex', u'tweepy Documentation',
u'Tweepy Authors', 'manual'),
# The name of an image file (relative to this directory) to place at the top of
# the title page.
#latex_logo = None
# For "manual" documents, if this is true, then toplevel headings are parts,
# not chapters.
#latex_use_parts = False
# Additional stuff for the LaTeX preamble.
#latex_preamble = ''
# Documents to append as an appendix to all manuals.
#latex_appendices = []
# If false, no module index is generated.
#latex_use_modindex = True
.. _getting_started:
Getting started
If you are new to Tweepy, this is the place to begin. The goal of this
tutorial is to get you set-up and rolling with Tweepy. We won't go
into too much details here, just some important basics.
Hello Tweepy
.. code-block :: python
import tweepy
public_tweets = tweepy.api.public_timeline()
for tweet in public_tweets:
print tweet.text
This example will download the public timeline tweets and print each
one of their texts to the console. tweepy.api in the above code
snippet is an unauthenticated instance of the tweepy API class. The
API class contains all the methods for access the Twitter API. By
unauthenticated means there is no user associated with this
instance. So you may only do unauthenticated API calls with this
instance. For example the following would fail::
tweepy.api.update_status('will not work!')
The :ref:`auth_tutorial` goes into more details about authentication.
The API class provides access to the entire twitter RESTful API
methods. Each method can accept various parameters and return
responses. For more infomation about these methods please refer to
When we invoke an API method most of the time returned back to us will
be a Tweepy model class instance. This will contain the data returned
from Twitter which we can then use inside our application. For example
the following code returns to us an User model::
# Get the User object for twitter...
user = tweepy.api.get_user('twitter')
Models container the data and some helper methods which we can then
print user.screen_name
print user.followers_count
for friend in user.friends():
print friend.screen_name
For more information about models please see ModelsReference.
.. tweepy documentation master file, created by
sphinx-quickstart on Sun Dec 6 11:13:52 2009.
You can adapt this file completely to your liking, but it should at least
contain the root `toctree` directive.
Welcome to tweepy's documentation!
.. toctree::
:maxdepth: 2
Indices and tables
* :ref:`genindex`
* :ref:`modindex`
* :ref:`search`
REM Command file for Sphinx documentation
set SPHINXBUILD=sphinx-build
set BUILDDIR=_build
if NOT "%PAPER%" == "" (
if "%1" == "" goto help
if "%1" == "help" (
echo.Please use `make ^<target^>` where ^<target^> is one of
echo. html to make standalone HTML files
echo. dirhtml to make HTML files named index.html in directories
echo. pickle to make pickle files
echo. json to make JSON files
echo. htmlhelp to make HTML files and a HTML help project